PRINTMAKING TECHNIQUES

An original print is recognised as a plate worked on by solely the Artist themselves; not being linked to another person other than the Artist. This therefore excludes reproductive/ interpretative works. Original prints are often produced in small numbers, sometimes even being editioned (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

 

DIGITAL PROCESSES

Screen printing  

Screen printing is a popular technique, beginning in the 1930s in America being utilized by Artists.

  1. This consists of applying stencils/imagery to a screen; An image is produced as a bitmap then printed onto acetate. This is then exposed onto a screen going through a process. This can also be done in various methods, such as using filling in liquid, varnish or even plastic form. A drawing can even be directly made on the surface; using special ink.

  2. This is done in such a way that when being printed; the ink is able to pass through some parts, whilst other areas is prevented. This therefore, prints an image onto the paper placed underneath.

  3. The screen is stretched across a frame, which is attached to a base; being able to move up and down easily.

  4. The paper is placed against registration tabs; allowing for printing to be done in the correct position required

  5. Ink is placed into the mask at one end; when the screen is lowered, the ink is scraped across the screen; using a squeegee.

  6. The image is then printed; this can be done in layers to allow varied colour build ups (like the image seen below)

(Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

benrider_peopleofprint

(Print Club London, 2018)

 

Stencil

In the print making process, stencils can also be utilised; sometimes even being an essential part of the process. They can be attached to the screen or incorporated within; to ensure ink is presented and processed in the places intended (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

Stencils can be produced in varied forms such as a masking/covering; this involves the design being drawn onto the screen, using a greasy substance. The screen is then covered with filler/gum. The image is then dissolved in stages this creates in turn a positive stencil/ photo stencil. Photographic images, are however incorporated within the screen itself. Stencils can also be used for hand colouring prints by hand; these can be made out of zinc or aluminum. The sections them are dabbed with a brush or layered over one another. This method has been used in various methods such as woodcuts, maps, and topographic prints.  (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

130103_printmaking_pochoir_stencil_david_manje_mesa_arts_center_art_class_workshop_19

(La Carmina Blog – Alternative Goth Fashion, Travel, Subcultures, 2018)

RELIEF PRINTMAKING

Relief printmaking consists of varied techniques and processes; these can be used with various materials in which to present different visual aesthetics’. The selection of what methods depends on the Artists style/work.

 

Woodcut

The design is drawn on a wood plank (side grain) and those areas that are not to print are cut away well below the surface with a knife or gouge. Linocut is the same technique using linoleum rather than wood. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

log_carving_woodcut_v3

(Tugboatprintshop, 2018)

 

Chiaroscuro woodcut

In this technique, the design selected is divided amongst several blocks, each specifically to print a different colour; with or without overlaps. Areas that are cut away will not be printed, providing negative space that will reflect highlights of the natural paper colour; this representing the light-dark technique. The blocks are to be carefully matched, in place of the surface design, in order to allow clear registration. The paper will pass through with as many printing blocks that are there.  (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

Mueller-chiaroscuro-woodcut400x844

(Design, 2018)

Wood engraving

In the wood engraving technique, tools used are similar to that of metal engraving. Usually in wood engraving, box wood is often used which is often polished; these tend to be the end pieces. In using this technique, when printing they are used to produce non-printing lines; only the uncut surface is that which will take the ink and therefore print. The cut surface, becomes the negative space, creating highlights.  (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

fd5b3194fb4f4cb8481892ee8c2b4ce7--wood-engraving-wood-cut

(Rowley Gallery, 2018)

Mixed-media prints (Hybrid)

Mixed media print making, can utilize and combine a variety of traditional processes; rather than using a singular technique itself. Such as combining screen printing, collage with monotype etc. in the creation of a single print itself. The work itself can even combine other art techniques this can include painting, etching, photography and more. Working in this way can be seen as none-traditional and is now recognised as being a Hybrid way of working. The surfaces in which works are produced onto also can different rather than the generic. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

6d0905877367734f18c9d4b6e7cf3268

(Theart123, 2018) 

Lino/Linoleum

This technique is recognised as being evolved from woodcut. Having similarities within the process to one another, however differs within materials used.

  1. The material is draw on to present a design; this is optional to the artist. It would however be advisable to use a permanent marker as pencil can be smudged when cutting.

  2. This is then heated up to allow the material to be easily cut into; as if not heated, it can be difficult in which to work into and not be flexible within cutting.

  3. Lino is then cut into with varied cutting tools; During which a bench hook is also used in allowing safety to prevent this moving around freely

  4. The uncut sections remaining are inked using a print roller; this is then used to print with through a press- ensuring correct registration with the paper.

  5. Varied lino tiles can be created in created a colour print; being processed in stages onto the same paper

(Masterworks Fine Art, 2018)

shellie-lewis-carved-lino

(Shellielewis, 2018)

Monotype
A design is drawn in ink or paint on any smooth surface. This can be used by using the additive method or subtractive; painting directly onto the plate or using rags/materials/tools to wipe away the ink itself to create suggestive imagery.  Whilst the ink is wet, paper is laid on top and then hand burnished with the pressure of the hand. This can however also be processed through an etching printing press allowing an even level of pressure. The name of the process reflects a single impression, however at times there may be enough ink in order to produce a second outcome often being more faint and less contrasted.  (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

 

Mono-print

Mono-printing is another form of print-making, this uses a matrix however producing outcomes that in themselves are unique. Multiple prints can be produced from a single matrix, each time making different impressions; this can be known as variable edition. Techniques used within this method can differ, using collage, collagraph techniques alongside hand painted additions. The most traditional method consists of:

1.     Ink is rolled onto the plate/table, until the texture is smooth

2.     The ink is the blotted within newsprint to collect any residue build up

3.     Paper is laid over the top of the ink; this may have an image attached to it (photograph)

4.     The paper is then drawn directly into; presenting the detail of the image attached

5.     Once lifted, the drawn parts are those that have been picked up by the ink, leaving negative space to the undrawn areas.

 (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018)

c847d9bd4a45996b21e659d480192162

(StJudesPrints, 2018)

INTAGLIO PRINTMAKING

Dry-point

  1. The plate is initially polished and bevelled

  2. Lines are scratched and drawn directly into the metal plates surface; these being sharp instruments and tools specifically for dry-point. Tools can also consist of random mark making tools; to allow spontaneous and interesting textural visual outcomes.

  3. The plate is then inked up, then a cloth is then used to rub the plate, only leaving the ink within the areas that have been scratched/ worked into.

  4. Paper is then soaked in water then blotted taking away excess.

  5. The paper is then laid over the plate and pulled through an etching press. The areas that were inked are now printed onto the paper surface.

 (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

Engraving

  1. The plate is initially polished and bevelled

  2. Lines are incised on a polished plate- using a sharp instrument called a burin or graver

  3. The tools work’s like a plough cutting a furrow cutting sections of the metal out

  4. The strength of the line- can be increased by digging and cutting deeper

  5. The tool is held within a fixed position; allowing to produce a curved line

  6. This method is slow and controlled; allowing to present formal results.

  7. The printing process is the exact same as that of dry-point however the tools used differ

 (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

Etching (Hard ground)

  1. The plate is initially polished and bevelled

  2. It is then covered with an acid impervious ground; this is dabbed on the plate using a tool

  3. The plate is then smoked to a black uniform

  4. Using a scribe, the plate is worked directly into; baring the metal of the plate

  5. The plate is then placed into an acid bath which eats into the areas that are exposed; the longer the plate is left in the deeper the acid will eat into the plate, therefore the line is stronger

  6. Depths can differ; in covering some lines with acid impervious varnish called stop out

  7. Using a feather to move the acid over the surface of the plate; the lines are bitten into the metal plate.

  8. The plate is then cleaned

  9. The printed is then inked up; the sections exposed are the sections which will carry the ink, the rest will be wiped away

  10. The plate is then processed the same way as an engraving/drypoint

(Masterworks Fine Art, 2018)

Soft ground etching

Another etching process is soft ground etching. This aims to portray the visual qualities of chalk/crayon drawings.

  1. The plate is initially polished and bevelled

  2. The plate itself is covered with initially a soft ground coat- being melted using a brayer to roller it

  3. Paper is then placed over the top and taped

  4. The drawing is then made, working directly on the paper itself; which has been pressed to the surface of the grounded plate.

  5. The ground fixates to the back of the paper in which the crayon has left indents

  6. This creates an impression on the plate itself of the crayon marks

  7. The paper is then removed

  8. After this, the plate is then bitten- being plate into the acid bath

  9. Once bitten to a point that you are satisfied, the plate is removed and cleaned; removing the stopper/chemicals and backing.

  10. The plate is then worked into with etching ink- into the areas bitten

  11. The plate is then wiped with a tarlatan, paper then a hand wipe

  12. The plate is printed on damp paper through the etching press

(Masterworks Fine Art, 2018)

 

Aquatint

The aquatint process, consists of acid biting specifically within tone, rather than that of line. A ground is used, that is not complete impervious to acid. This therefore creates a granular texture to the plate itself. Stop out can be used and repetitious bites via acid can be applied in producing carried tonalities and depths to the plate itself.

 (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

Carborundum

A very hard mixture consisting primarily of silicon carbide; it is used as an abrasive and, in powdered form, in a method of engraving invented by Henri Goetz. He used it to obtain a dotted effect by sprinkling it over a metal plate (usually duralumin) which was then pulled through a press, thereby causing the grains to penetrate the metal. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

ross-loveday_print_burnt-fen

(Rossloveday, 2018)

 

Mezzotint

The is the sole technique in intaglio that have tonal values from dark to light, rather than the contrary.

  1. The plate is totally worn away with a tool called a rocker.

  2. Were it initially inked and printed this would produce an even, rich black.

  3. The design itself, mainly in areas of tone, then that of lines is mainly produced by smoothing the surface areas of the plate with the scraper/burnishing tool

  4. The more the surface area is scraped- the lighter the section is when printed

 (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

Photogravure

This technique is known as one of importance to industrial printing- Other than that of the letterpress/Offset lithography. This process can be divided into two procedures:

  1. Hand photogravure: Using similar techniques to that of aquatint to gain tone. This will be undertaken after sensitizing a copper plate, exposing it to light; in order to form an image. Resin/grain will be scattered over it. The following steps will then continue as normal, using the aquatint process. This is recognised as photo-mechanical processing.

  2. Another method is known as machine photogravure. This is where the tone is supplied, by using a cross line screen. The plate is bent to form a cylinder shape, this therefore allows very fast printing processes. This is often used within magazines and catalogues. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

Craft_01a1

(Photogravure.com, 2018)

Collagraph

  1. A surface is built with materials to present a image; materials need to be a certain height in order to be processed through the press.

  2. Once fixated to for example the cardboard, this is then PVA’D approx. 4-5 times with layers allowing to dry each time. This allows it to become water resistant/ oil resistant.

  3. Once dried and layered the collagraph is then inked up using a soft roller- allowing to pick up all the various textures.

  4. This is then printed through the press onto a paper surface.

3096689_orig

(andrew rice art, 2018)

LITHOGRAPHY (Planographic printing)

In lithography printmaking, there is no difference in the level of surface to the ink itself.  The technique was produced in 1796, by German Author and Actor, Alois Senefelder specifically used to publish theatrical works being a cheap method to reproduce (Wikipedia, 2018).

  1. Design drawn/painted onto stone usually Bavarian limestone- this can be grained, flat or even polished

  2. A greasy crayon or ink is used to paint/ draw onto the stone itself

  3. The design produced, is this fixated to the stone, using a chemical substance of acid and gum Arabic

  4. The stone is flooded then with water, water is absorbed in every part of the stone, except where the ink has been applied (this repels the water, as oil and water don’t mix)

  5. Prints ink is then rolled onto the stone itself- the water repels this however the drawing elements accepts the ink

  6. Paper is then overlaid onto the stone

  7. The stone/paper is then run through the printing press; using slight pressure

  8. The print outcome, will be present however not being embossed or raised

In using lithography, the design can in fact be separated amongst several stones; in using various colours to produce one final outcome

(Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

11535701_10100297856450192_7534353846878228709_n

(Romeyn, 2018)

TRANSFER LITHOGRAPH

A transfer lithograph, which is known as “autographi” in French, adopts the same technique. However, the drawing rather than being directly applied to the stone, is placed onto specific transfer paper, then later mechanically processed onto the stone. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

ZINCOGRAPH

A zincograph, again is another technique applying the same process; however, a zinc plate is used alternatively to the stone. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

 

COLLOTYPE

The Collotype was previously known as the “Allbertype” previously known as, after the inventor Alphonse Poitevin who created the technique in 1856 (Wikipedia, 2018) . The technique is known as a process, in which to produce high quality prints from a sheet of light sensitive gelatin; being exposed photographically to the image itself without using a screen. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

  1. Layer of gelatine is poured; this is mixed with potassium chromate on top of the zinc/glass plate surface

  2. This is then exposed within light; allowing the image to be received

  3. The gelatine substance, becomes hardened from the light exposure; proportion received

  4. The sections of the surface that aren’t exposed, remain soft and have moisture

  5. The plate is directly dampened with water, from this the ink is then applied using a roller

  6. The ink attaches to the inverse proportion; in relation to the moisture retained

  7. The areas of gelatine print the darkest

The process is good in which to reproduce watercolour works, due to the grain.

(Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

CLICHÉ VERRE (Glass print)

This technique is a combination of photography and drawing, it was first practised by a number of French artists in the 19th century (Wikipedia, 2018). The process consists of:

  1. The glass plate is covered with ink/paint (can also using plastic sheet, transparent surface and even thin paper etc.)

  2. A design is drawn through it with a brush/stylus- producing a negative matrix

  3. Photo sensitised paper is placed beneath the glass, then exposed to light; within a dark room setting

  4. A positive, proto-photographic image then will appear onto the paper; this technique is specifically a technique without printing itself

(Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

 cvp007

(Nancy Lasar, 2018)

CHINE COLLE

Areas of thin colored tissue / rice paper mounted (collage or Collé) on or glued to the surface of a print. Frequently combined with etching or lithography this process, the ink of the plate glues the thin paper to the substrate as the print is run through the press. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

img_0387 

(Suecooart.files.wordpress.com, 2018)

Offset Lithography/ offset/ photo mechanical print

This method of print is known as one of the four main techniques used within industrial printing, being commonly used within commercial printing. The others being screen print, photogravure and letterpress. This technique is recognised as an extension of the lithographic technique. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

  1. The image is picked up from the stone/plate (this can be either aluminium or zinc)

  2. This has normally been grained itself or covered with absorbent oxide- using a rubber roller

  3. This then reprint it onto paper

  4. Text and image itself, can be transferred photographically and prepped using the normal lithographic technique; based on the natural opposition of grease and water

Using this process can be advantageous; as the whole process of dampening, inking and printing is done by varied rollers, allowing efficiency. This therefore allows to be specifically useful for commercial purposes. (Masterworks Fine Art, 2018).

[WORKING DOCUMENT- TO BE EDITED AND UPDATED ONGOING]

REFERENCES

andrew rice art. (2018). collagraph. [online] Available at: https://www.andrewriceart.com/collagraph.html [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Design, P. (2018). THE ART OF WOODCUTTING. [online] Pantherpro-webdesign.com. Available at: http://pantherpro-webdesign.com/heller/art_of_woodcutting.html [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Frames of Reference. (2018). A Short Walk With Howard Phipps. [online] Available at: http://blog.rowleygallery.co.uk/a-short-walk-with-howard-phipps/ [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

La Carmina Blog – Alternative Goth Fashion, Travel, Subcultures. (2018). Art tutorial video! Anime pop printmaking with David Manje, Mesa Arts Center Arizona. | La Carmina Blog- Alternative Fashion, Travel, Subcultures. [online] Available at: http://www.lacarmina.com/blog/2013/02/mesa-arts-center-printmaking-classes-pochoir-prints-colorful/ [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018

Masterworks Fine Art. (2018). Printmaking Techniques, Defined and Explained in Plain English. [online] Available at: https://www.masterworksfineart.com/educational-resources/printmaking-techniques/ [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Nancy Lasar. (2018). Cliché Verre. [online] Available at: https://nancylasar.org/portfolio/cliche-verre/#jp-carousel-16 [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Photogravure.com. (2018). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: http://www.photogravure.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Craft_01a1.jpg [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Print Club London. (2018). People of Print: 20 Screen Print Artists You Should All Know About. | Print Club London. [online] Available at: https://printclublondon.com/people-of-print-20-screen-print-artists-you-should-all-know-about/ [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Prints, S. (2018). Nature Study Late Summer – a screen print by Angie Lewin. [online] St. Jude’s Prints. Available at: https://www.stjudesprints.co.uk/collections/angie-lewin/products/nature-study-late-summer-angie-lewin-screenprint [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Romeyn, A. (2018). Learn Stone Lithography. [online] ANNIKA ROMEYN. Available at: http://www.annika-romeyn.com/blog/2015/10/6/learn-stone-lithography [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Shellielewis.files.wordpress.com. (2018). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: https://shellielewis.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/shellie-lewis-carved-lino.jpg?w=595 [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Suecooart.files.wordpress.com. (2018). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: https://suecooart.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/img_0387.jpg [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Theart123.com. (2018). Street Art | The Art 123. [online] Available at: http://theart123.com/gallery/street-art/ [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

walsh, t. (2018). Carborundum Printmaking – Carol Nunan – Printmaker. [online] Carol Nunan – Printmaker. Available at: http://carolnunan.co.uk/carborundum-printmaking/ [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

Tugboatprintshop.com. (2018). Tugboat Printshop: “Log” Woodblock Print. [online] Available at: http://www.tugboatprintshop.com/woodcut_log.htm [Accessed 12 Feb. 2018].

 

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